Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of dryness, grittiness, redness, burning sensation or any discomfort, visual disturbance and tear film instability leading to potential damage to ocular surface. The tear film consists of three layers starting from within outwards mucus, the aqueous layer and the lipid layer. The tear film and ocular surface form a complex and stable system that can lose its equilibrium through numerous disturbing factors. Studies which also involve tests of tear functions including Schirmer’s test, Tear break-up time, Fluorescein staining for determination of dry eye have found generally low prevalence rates.Hence the physiology of tear film and its binding with the eye shows that there is some involvement of serum calcium level with dry eye. The present study encourages us to assess the role of serum calcium level with patients of dry eye. Aims and Objective: To assess the role of calcium with dry eye. Material and Methods: Total 90 subjects (30 cases and 60 controls) who met the selection criteria were included in the study. Serum analysis has been done for calcium level in the body in the patients of dry eye.The study was conducted between August 2014 to November 2016. Results: The lower serum level of calcium was significantly associated with dry eyes in the study. Conclusion: Calcium plays an important role in the causative mechanism of dry eye in the patients of dry eye disease.
How to Cite
Patil, M., Balwir, D., Khune, A., & Dhewale, S. (2018). Dry Eye and its Relationship with Status of Serum Calcium in the Body at a Tertiary Care Institute: A Case Control Study. MVP Journal of Medical Sciences, 82–86. https://doi.org/10.18311/mvpjms.v5i1.11039
- McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, Stanislavsky YL, Taylor HR. The epidemiologyof dry eye in Melbourne, Australia. Ophthalmogy. 1998; 105:1114–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420%2898%2996016-X
- Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000; 118:1264–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.118.9.1264 PMid:10980773
- Brewitt H, Sistani F. Dry eye disease: The scale of the problem. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001; 45(Supp 2):S199–202. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6257%2800%2900202-2
- Lapalus P, Fredj-Reygrobellet D, Delayre T. Effect of vitamin B12 on the healing of corneal wounds in the rabbit. Contactologia. 1988; 10:73–5.
- Wolff E. Mucocutaneous junction of lid margin and the distribution of the tear fluid. Trans Ophthal Soc. 1946; 66:291– 308.
- Plum LA, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D, disease and therapeutic opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2010; 9:941–55. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd3318 PMid:21119732
- Adams JS, Hewison M. Extrarenal expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012; 523:95–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2012.02.016 PMid:22446158 PMCid:PMC3361592
- Alsalem JA, Patel D, Susarla R, Coca-Prados M, Bland R, Walker EA, et al. Characterization of vitamin D production by human ocular barrier cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55:2140–7. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13019 PMid:24576880
- Lin Y, Ubels JL, Schotanus MP, Yin Z, Pintea V, Hammock BD, et al. Enhancement of vitamin D metabolites in the eye following vitamin D3 supplementation and UV-B irradiation. Curr Eye Res. 2012; 37:871–8. https://doi.org/1 0.3109/02713683.2012.688235 PMid:22632164 PMCid:PMC3572765
- Reins RY, McDermott AM. Vitamin D: Implications for ocular disease and therapeutic potential. Exp Eye Res. 2015; 134:101–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2015.02.019 PMid:25724179 PMCid:PMC4426046
- Yin Z, Pintea V, Lin Y, Hammock BD, Watsky MA. Vitamin D enhances corneal epithelial barrier function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52:7359–64. https://doi.org/10.1167/ iovs.11-7605 PMid:21715350 PMCid:PMC3183972
- Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003; 136:318–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S00029394%2803%2900218-6
- Schaumberg DA, Dana R, Buring JE, Sullivan DA. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: Estimates from the Physicians’ Health Studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009; 127:763–68. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.103 PMid:19506195 PMCid:PMC2836718
- Yazdani C, McLaughlin T, Smeeding JE, Walt J. Prevalence of treated dry eye disease in a managed care population. Clin Ther. 2001; 23:1672–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918%2801%2980136-3
- Schein OD, Hochberg MC, Munoz B, et al. Dry eye and dry mouth in the elderly: A population-based assessment. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159:1359–63. https://doi.org/10.1001/ archinte.159.12.1359 PMid:10386512
- Munoz B, West SK, Rubin GS, et al. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in a population of older Americans: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study. Arch Ophthalmol 2000; 118:819–25. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.118.6.819 PMid:10865321
- Dadaci Z, Borazan M, Kiyici A, OncelAcir N. Plasma vitamin D and serumtotal immunoglobulin E levels in patients with seasonal allergicconjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014; 92:443–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.12398 PMid:24667068
- Yildirim P, Garip Y, Karci AA, Guler T. Dry eye in vitamin D deficiency: More than an incidental association. Int J Rheum Dis. 2016; 19:49–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/1756185X.12727 PMid:26269110
- Yoon SY, Bae SH, Shin YJ, Park SG, Hwang SH, Hyon JY, et al. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels are associated with dry eye syndrome. PLoS One. 2016; 11:e0147847. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147847 PMid:26807908 PMCid:PMC4726745
- Suzuki T, Sano Y, Kinoshita S. Effects of 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Langerhans cell migration and corneal neovascularization in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000; 41:154–8. PMid:10634615
- Dang ST, Lu XH, Zhou J, Bai L. Effects of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the acute immune rejection and corneal neovascularization in high-risk penetrating keratoplasty in rats. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004; 24:892–6, 903.
- Shetty R, Sethu S, Deshmukh R, Deshpande K, Ghosh A, Agrawal A, Shroff R. Corneal dendritic cell density is associated with subbasal nerve plexus features, ocular surface disease index, and serum vitamin D in evaporative dry eye disease. Biomed Res Int. 2016; 4369750. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4369750
- Shetty R, Deshpande K, Deshmukh R, Jayadev C, Shroff R. Bowman break and subbasal nerve plexus changes in a patient with dry eye presenting with chronic ocular pain and vitamin D deficiency. Cornea. 2016 May; 35(5):688–91. https://doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000000785 PMid:26890669