Vitamin D in Therapeutics: Past, Present and Future

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Jeetendra Singh
Sameer B. Dharrao
Tushar Baheti

Abstract

In the beginning of 20th century vitamin D was classified as a vitamin but later considered as a prohormone ("conditional" vitamin) which influences the expression of more than 200 genes in the human body. Worldwide vitamin D insufficiency affects about 50% of the population and in India about 80% of population has vitamin D level less than normal. In India sunshine is abundant but still Indians are deprived of this sunshine vitamin. Minimal exposure to direct sunlight, staying indoors, use of sunscreen lotions, pollution, clothing, dietary and cooking habits are most important factors for vitamin D deficiency in the Indian population. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level is the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 is recommended for patients having deficiency, keeping hypervitaminosis in mind.

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Singh, J., Dharrao, S. B., & Baheti, T. (2016). Vitamin D in Therapeutics: Past, Present and Future. MVP Journal of Medical Sciences. Retrieved from https://mvpjms.org/index.php/mvpjms/article/view/236

References

  1. Mehlawat U, Singh P. Pande S. Current status of vitamin-D deficiency in India. Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacotherapy. 2014; 2(2):328–35.
  2. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The sunshine vitamin. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. 2012 AprJun; 3(2):118–26.
  3. Ritu G, Gupta A. Vitamin D deficiency in India: Prevalence, causalities and interventions. Nutrients. 2014; 6:729–75. DOI: 10.3390/nu6020729.
  4. Norval M. A short circular history of Vitamin D from its discovery to its effects. Res Medica. 2005; 268(2):57–8.
  5. Bordelon P, Ghetu MV, Langan R. Recognition and management of vitamin D deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Oct 15; 80(8):841–6. St.Luke`s family medicine residency program, Bethlehem,Pennsylvania.
  6. BischoffFerrari HA,Willett WC, Wong JB, Stuck AE, Staehelin HB, Orav EJ, et al. Prevention of non-vertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: A metaanalysis of randomized controlled. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23; 169(6):551–61. [PubMed: 19307517].
  7. Hintzpeter B, Mensink GB, Mensink GB, Thierfelder W, Muller MJ, ScheidtNave C, et al. Vitamin D status and health correlates among German adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008; 62:1079–89. [PubMed: 17538533].
  8. Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Hypertens. 2007; 20:713–9. [PubMed: 17586404].
  9. Pilz S, Tomaschitz A, Ritz E, Pieber TR. Vitamin D status and arterial hypertensionA systematic review. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2009; 6:621–30. [PubMed: 19687790].
  10. Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacqes PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al. Vitamin deficiency and risk of cardio-vascular disease. Circulation. 2008; 117(4):503–11. (Pub Med :18180395).
  11. Forman JP, Holmes GE. BischoffFerrari HA, Tworoger SS, Willett WC, et al. Plasma25hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension. 2007; 49:1063– 9. [PubMed: 17372031].
  12. Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, DawsonHughes B. The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30:980–6. [PubMed: 17277040].
  13. Ahn J, Peters U, Purdue AD, Abnet CC, Chatterjee N, et al. Serum vitamin D concentration and prostatecancer risk: A nested casecontrol study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100:796– 804. [PubMed: 18505967].
  14. Anderson LN, Cotterchio M, Vieth R, Knight JA. Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in preand postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91:1699–707. [PubMed: 20392891].
  15. Jorde R, Sneve M, Sneve M, Figenschau Y, Svartberg J, Waterloo K. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depressionin overweight and obese subjects: Randomized double blindtrial. J Intern Med. 2008; 264:599–609. [PubMed: 18793245].
  16. Knekt P, Kilkkinen A, Rissanen H, Marniemi J, Saaksjarvi K, Heliovaara M. Vitamin D and the risk of Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2010; 67:80811. [PMCID: PMC3091074] [PubMed: 20625085].
  17. Christine G. Vitamin D supplementation: An update. US Pharm. 2010; 35:58–76. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91:1255–60. [PubMed: 20219962].
  18. Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 91:1255–60. [PubMed: 20219962].
  19. Kennel KA, Drake MT, Hurley DL. Vitamin D deficiency in adults: When to test and how to treat. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010 Aug; 85(8):752–8.
  20. Tripathi KD. Chapter 24: Drugs affecting calcium balance. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 7th ed. Jaypee Brothers. p. 342.